GENETICALLY ENGINEERED (GE) - Genetically engineered foods have had foreign genes inserted into their genetic codes. Genetic engineering can be done with plants, animals, or microorganisms. GE practices are sometimes referred to as bioengineered or biotechnology.
GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISM (GMO) - A plant, animal, or microorganism that is transformed by genetic engineering. A product that is the result of genetic engineering is called a “product of genetic engineering” or a “derivative of GMOs” depending on the circumstances. It is felt by some that the use of GM crops unnecessarily risks the health of the population and the environment due to insufficient knowledge to safely and predictably modify plant genomes.
GLOBAL WARMING POTENTIAL (GWP) - The global warming potential of a given greenhouse gas describes its effect on climate change relative to a similar amount of carbon dioxide and can be presented in time horizons of 20, 100, and 500 years. As the base unit, carbon dioxide is assigned a global warming potential of 1.0 across each time horizon.
GREENHOUSE GASES (GHG) - Gases in the atmosphere that absorb and re-emit long-wave (typically infrared) radiation from the Earth (trapping heat). There are three principal greenhouse gases of concern for agriculture: carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4).
GREEN MANURE - A crop grown for the main purpose of building up or maintaining soil organic matter; sometimes called a cover crop.
GROUNDWATER - Water contained below the ground surface, typically in the pore spaces of underground geologic deposits.