Organic Farming



INGREDIENT - Any substance used in the preparation of an agricultural product that is still present in the final commercial product as consumed.

INFILTRATION - The process of water entering the soil at the surface.

INORGANIC CHEMICALS - Chemicals that are not made from chains or rings of carbon atoms - for example, soil clay minerals, nitrate, and calcium.

IRRIGATION - The application of water to soil to provide better moisture conditions for crop growth. Flood and furrow irrigation practices pond the soil with water for a limited time and allow it to infiltrate. Micro-irrigation, including drip, trickle, and micro-sprinkler irrigation, refers to a set of practices that apply localized irrigation water at low rates through small tubes and emitters and are generally water conserving. Supplemental irrigation refers to a practice used in humid regions where rainfall provides most crop water needs and irrigation is primarily used to maintain adequate soil moisture levels during limited drought periods. Deficit irrigation refers to a water-conserving practice whereby water supply is reduced below maximum levels and mild crop stress is allowed, with minimal effects on yield.

INSECTARY PLANTING - Planting strips or patches in a field with species that attract beneficial insects.

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) - The use of different techniques in combination to control pests, with an emphasis on methods that are least injurious to the environment and most specific to the particular pest. For example, pest-resistant plant varieties, regular monitoring for pests, pesticides, natural predators of the pest, and good stand management practices may be used singly or in combination to control or prevent particular pests.

INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE MOVEMENTS (IFOAM) - IFOAM’s mission is to lead, unite, and assist the organic movement in its full diversity with a goal of worldwide adoption of ecologically, socially, and economically sound systems that are based on the principles of organic agriculture.

INTERSEEDING - Planting a direct-seeded crop into another crop, either at planting of the first crop or later, after it is established.

INVERSION TILLAGE - In contrast with non-inversion tillage, inversion tillage flips over a layer (often 6 to 12in) of soil, burying surface residues (and associated weed seeds, spores, and insect larva and eggs) in the process. The result is a surface with minimal residues that can be easily managed using traditional secondary tillage equipment, but is susceptible to erosion. The moldboard plow is the standard inversion tillage implement. Disk plows also perform inversion tillage.

IRRADIATION - Exposure to ionizing radiation - Food irradiation is a synthetic process that is not allowed in organic production.