THERMOPHILIC BACTERIA - Bacteria that live and work best under high temperatures, around 110 to 140°F. They are responsible for the most intense stage of decomposition that occurs during composting.
TILLAGE - The mechanical manipulation of soil, generally for the purpose of loosening the soil, creating a seed- bed, controlling weeds, or incorporating amendments. Primary tillage (moldboard plowing, chiseling) is a more rigorous practice, primarily for loosening soil and incorporating amendments. Secondary tillage (disking, harrowing) is a less rigorous practice, following primary tillage, which creates a seedbed containing fine aggregates.
TILTH - A holistic term referring to favorable soil physical properties for agriculture. Soils with "good tilth" are friable, can be tilled with less draft, and allow tillage objectives to be easily achieved. Similar terms include describing the soil as "mellow", having good "condition", or "works like a garden".
TINES - Straight or curved, stiff or flexible, and varying with respect to angle of soil contact, tines modify soil structure by a range of processes, including, cutting, lifting, and vibration, that transfer draft energy to the soil through the tine. Stiff tines are often referred to as shanks. Tines generally do not create significant down pressure and thus do not compact the soil below the depth of tillage. Flexible tines vibrate as they are pulled through soil and this vibration contributes to the shattering of soil structure.
TOLERANCE - The maximum legal level of a pesticide chemical residue in or on a raw or processed agricultural commodity or processed food.
TRANSPIRATION - The loss of water from the soil through plant uptake and evaporation from leaf surfaces.